About The Textile Factory
Textile manufacturing is based in the conversion of three types of fibred into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artifacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fibred, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and coloration processes to the production of wide ranges of products. There remains a large industry that uses hand techniques to achieve the same results. Artisans were inventing ways to become more productive . Silk, Wool, Fustian, were being eclipsed by Cotton which was becoming the most important textile. This set the foundations for the changes.
- Textiles is Cottonspinning using Richard Arkwright'swater frame, James Hargreaves's Spinning Jenny, and Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule (a combination of the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame). This was patented in 1769 and so came out of patent in 1783. The end of the patent was rapidly followed by the erection of many cotton mills. Similar technology was subsequently applied to spinning worstedyarn for various textiles and flax for linen.
- Steam power is the improved steam engine invented by James Watt and patented in 1775 was initially mainly used for pumping out mines, but from the 1780s was applied to power machines. This enabled rapid development of efficient semi-automated factories on a previously unimaginable scale in places where waterpower was not available.
- Iron founding is the Iron industry, coke was finally applied to all stages of iron smelting, replacing charcoal. This had been achieved much earlier for lead and copper as well as for producing pig iron in a blast furnace, but the second stage in the production of bar iron depended on the use of potting and stamping (for which a patent expired in 1786) or puddling.